Many of the most damaging and life-threatening types 
            of weather-torrential rains,severe thunderstorms,and 
            tornadoes-begin quickly,strike suddenly,and dissipate 
            rapidly,devastating small regions while leaving neighboring 
line      areas untouched. One such event,a tornado,stuck the 
(5)       northeastern section of Edmonton,Alberta,in july 1987.
           Total damages from the tornado exceeded $250 million,the
            highest ever for any Canadian storm.Conventional computer
            models of the atmosphere have limited value in predicting 
            short-lived local storms like the Edmonton tornado,because 
            the available weather data are generally not detailed enough
            to allow computers to discern the subtle atmospheric 
            changes that precede these storms.In most nations,for 
            example,weather-balloon observations are taken just once
(10)      every twelve hours at locations typically separated by 
            hundreds of miles.With such limited data,conventional
            forecasting models do a much better job predicting general
            weather conditions over large regions than they do
            forecasting specific local events.
                  Until recently,the observation-intensive approach 
            needed for accurate,very short-range forecasts,or
(15)     “Nowcasts,”was not feasible.The cost of equipping and 
            operating many thousands of conventional weather stations
            was prohibitively high,and the difficulties involved in 
            rapidly collecting and processing the raw weather data from
            such a network were insurmountable.Fortunately,scientific 
            and technological advances have overcome most of these 
            problems.Rader systems,automated weather instruents,and
(20)     satellites are all capable of making detailed,nearly 
            continuous observation over large regions at a relatively low
            cost.Communications satellites can transmit data around the
            world cheaply and instantaneously,and modern computers 
            can quickly compile and analyzing this large volume of 
            weather information.Meteorologists and computer scientists
            now work together to design computer programs and video
 (25)    equipment capable of transforming raw weather data into 
            words,symbols,and vivid graphic display that forecasters 
            can interpret easily and quickly.As meteorologists have 
            begun using these new technologies in weater forecasting
            offices,Nowcasting is becoming a reality.
1.What does he passage mainly discuss?
    a.Computers and weather
soal-soal toefl    b.Dangerous storms
    c.Weather forecasting
Jawab:(C)Weather forcasting
key word:conventionalmodels
Pembahasan:bacaan di atas membahas prakiran cuaca serta teknologi-teknologinya.
2.Why does the author mention the tornado in Edmonton,Canada?
    a.To indicate that tornadoes are common in summer
    b.To give an example of a damaging storm
    c.To explain different types of weather
    d.To show that tornadoes accur frequently in Canada
Jawab:(B)To give an example of a damaging storm
Key word:thhe highest ever for any Canadian srorm
Pembahasan:Tornado di Edmonton,Alberta,pada bulan juli 1987 mengakibatkan kerusakan lebih dari $250 juta,jumlah tertinggi yang pernah ada dari badai yang menerpa Kanada

3.The word”subtle”in line 9 is closest in meaning to
key word:halus

4.Why does the author state in line 10 that observations are taken”just once every twelve hours?”
    a.To indicate that the observations are timely
    b.To show why the observations are on limited value
    c.To compare data from balloons and computer
    d.To give an example of international cooperation
Jawab:(B)To show why the observations are limited value
Key word:With such limited data
Pembahasan:data cuaca yangtersedia umumnya tidak cukup rinci.di sebagian besar negara,misalnya,pengamatan balon cuac diambil hanya sekali setiap dua belas jam di lokasi yang biasanya dipisahkan oleh ratusan mil.

5.The word”they”in line 13 refers to
Key word:conventional forecasting models
Pembahasan:Model peramalan konvensional melakukan pekerjaan yang lebih baik memprediksi kondisi cuaca umum atas daerah besar daripada jika meramalkan peristiwa local yang spesifik

6.Which of the following is not mentioned as an advance in short-range weather forecasting?
    a.Weather balloons
    b.Radar systems
    c.Automated instruments
Jawab:(A)Weather balloons
Key word:Radar systems,automated weather instruments,and satelites
Pembahasan:sistem radar,instrumen cuaca otomatis,dan satelit mampu membuat rinci pengamatan secara hampir terus menerus atas daerah besar dengan biaya yang relatif rendah

7.The word”compile”in line 21 is closest in meaning to
    a.put together
    b.look up
    c.pile high over
Jawab:(A)put togrther
Key word:menghimpun
Pembahasan:compile=mengimpun=put together,look up=mencari
pile high=tumpukan tinggi,work over=mengolah lagi

8.With Nowcasting,it first became possible to provide inforation about
    a.short -lived local storm
    b.radar networks
    c.long-range weather forecasts
    d.general weather conditions
Jawab:(A)short-lived local storms
Key word:the observation-intensive approach needed for accurate,very short-range forecasts
Pembahasan:Nowcasting mampu menyediakan informasi tentang perkiraan cuaca dalam ruang terbatas dan dalam jangka pendek

9.The word”raw” in line 25 is closest in meaning to
Key word:mentah
Pembahasan:raw=mentah =unprocessed ,stormy=ribut
inaccurate=tidak akurat,uncooked=tidak dimasak

10.With which of the following statements is the author most likely
to agree?
    a.Communications satellites can predic severe weather
    b.Meteorologists should standardize computer programs
    c.The observation-intensive approach is no longer useful
    d.Weather predictions are becoming more accurate
Jawab:(D)Weather predictions are becoming more accutate
Key word:Until recently,the observation-intensive approach needed for accurate
Pembahasan:Penulis sepakat dengan pernyataan bahwa prakiran cuaca semakin lama semakin akurat

11.Which of the following would best illustrate Nowcasting?
     a.A five-day forecast
     b.A warning about a severe thunderstorm
     c.The avarage rainfall for each month
     d.A list of temperatures in major cities
Jawab:(A)A five-day forecast
Key word:very short-range forecasts
Pembahasan:Nowcasting dapat memprakirakan cuaca dalam jangka waktu yang pendek,dan dalam pilihan ganda tersebut,yang paling pendek adalah pilihan A) ramalan selama 5 hari. 

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