TRIK MENGERJAKAN SOAL-SOAL TOEFL(READING 18)

                The preservation of embryos and juveniles is rare 
            occurrence in the fossil record.The tiny,delicate skeletons 
            are usually scattered by scavengers or destroyed by 
            weathering before they can be fossilized.Ichthyosaurs had a
line      higher chance of being preserved than did terrestrial 
(5)       creatures because,as marine animals,they tended to live in 
            environments less subject to erosion.Still,their fossilization
            required a suite of factor:a slow rate of decay of soft tissues,
            little scavenging by other animals,a lack if swift currents 
            and waves to jumble and carry away small bones,and fairly,
            rapid burial.Given these factors,some areas have become a
            treasury of well-preserved ichthyosaur fossil.
(10)           The deposits at Holzmaden,Germany,present an 
            intererting case for analysis.The ichthyosaur remains are 
            found in black,bituminous marine shales deposited about 
            190 million years ago.Over the years,thousands of 
            specimens of marine reptiles,fish,and invertebrates have 
            been recovered from these rocks.The quality of preservation
            is outstanding,but what is even more impressive is the 
(15)      number of ichthyosaur fossils containing preserved 
            embryos.Ichthyosaurs with embryos have been reported 
            from 6 different levels of the shale in a small area around
            holzmaden,suggesting that a specific site was used by large
            numbers of ichthyosaurs repeatedly over time.The embryos
            are quite advanced in their physical development;their 
            paddles for example are already well formed.One specimen  (20)     is even preserved in the birth canal .In addition,the shale 
            contains the remains of many newborns that are between 
            20 and 30 inches long.
                   Why are there so many pregnant females and young at 
            Holzmaden when they are so rare elsewhere?The quality of
            preservation is almost unmatched and quarry operations 
            factors do not account for the interesting question of how 
            there came to be such a concentration of pregnant 
            ichthyosaurs in a partiular place very close to their time of
            giving birth.
1.The passage supports which of the following conclusions?
    a.Some species of ichthyosaurs decayed more rapidly than other
        species
    b.Ichthyosaur newborns are smaller than other newborn marine 
        reptiles
    c.Ichthyosaurs were more advanced than terrestrial creatures
    d.Ichthyosaurs may have gathered at Holzmaden to give birth
Jawab:(D)Ichthyosaurs may have gathered at Holzmaden to give birth
Key word:The number of ichthyosaur fossils containing preserved embryos
Pembahasan:Di Holzmaden,Jerman,ditemukan sejumlah fosil ichthyosaurus yang mengandung embrio

2.The word”they”in line 3 refers to
    a.skeletons
    b.scavengers
    c.creatures
    d.environments
Jawab:(A)skeletons
Key word:The tiny,delicate skeletons
Pembahasan:kerangka halus dan kecil biasanya tersebar atau hancur oleh pelapukan sebelum mereka dapat menjadi fosil

3.All of the following are mentioned as factors that encourage fossilization EXCEPT the
    a.speed of burial
    b.condition of the water
    c.rate at which soft tissues decay
    d.cause of death of the animal
Jawab:(D)cause of death of the animal
Key word:paragraph kesatu
Pembahasan:fosilisasi memerlukan faktor:tingkat kelambatan dari pembusukan jaringan lunak,tidak dirusak oleh hewan lain,kurangnya arus deras untuk mencampur dan membawa pergi tulang kecil,dan penguburan cukup cepat.

4.Which of the following is true of the fossil deposits discussed in the passage?
    a.They include examples of newly discovered species
    b.They contain large numbers of well preserved specimens
    c.They are older than fossils found in other places
    d.They have been analyzed more carefully than other fossils
Jawab:(B)They contain large numbers of well-preserved specimens
Key word:a treasury of well-preserved Ichthyosaur fossils.
Pembahasan:beberapa daerah menjadi kaya raya akan fosil Ichthyosaurus yang terawat baik

5.The word”outstanding”in line 14 is closest in meaning to
    a.extensive
    b.surprising
    c.vertical
    d.excellent
Jawab:(D)excellent
Key word:ulung
Pembahasan:*outstanding=terkenal,ulung
                     *excellent=unggul,ulung
                     *surprising=mengejutkan
                     *vertical=vertikal

6.The word”site”in line 17 is closest in meaning to
    a.example
    b.location
    c.development
    d.characteristic
Jawab:(B)location
key word:situs
Pembahasan:*site=situs,tempat,lokasi
                     *location=lokasi,tempat
                     * example=contoh
                     *development=perkembangan
                     *characteristic=ciri

7.Why does the author mention the specimen preserved in the birth canal(line 19-20)
    a.To illustrate that the embryo fossils are quite advanced in their 
       development
    b.To explain why the fossils are well preserved
    c.To indicate how the ichthyosaurs died
    d.To prove that ichthyosaurs are marine animals
Jawab:(A)To illustrate that the embryo fossils are quite advanced in their development
Key word:The embryos are quite advanced in their physical development
Pembahasan:Embrio cukup maju dalam perkembangan fisik mereka,sirip mereka,misalnya,sudah terbentuk dengan baik

8.The word”they”in line 22 refers to
    a.pregnant females and young 
    b.quarry operations
    c.the value of the fossils
    d.these factors
Jawab:(A)pregnant females and young
Key word:pregnant females and young
Pembahasan:ada banyak betina hamil dan muda di Holzmaden ketika mereka begitu langka di tempat lain.

9.The phrase”account for”in line 24 is closest in meaning to
    a.record
    b.describe
    c.equal
    d.explain
Jawab:(D)explain
Key word:menjelaskan
Pembahasan:*account for=menjelaskan,menerangkan
                     *explain=menjelaskan
                     *record=merekam
                     *describe=menggambarkan
                     *equal=sama

10.Which of the following best expresses the relationship between the first and second paragraphs?
    a.The first paragraph describes a place while the second 
        paragraph describes a field of study
    b.The first paragraph defines the terms that are used in the 
        second paragraph
    c.The second paragraph describes a specific instance of the
       general topic discussed in the first paragraph
    d.The second paragraph presents information that contrasts with
       the information given in the first paragraph.
Jawab:(C)The second paragraph describes a specific instance of general topic discussed in the first paragraph
Key word:present an intererting case for analysis
Pembahasan:paragraf pertama merupakan topik umum yang kemudian dijabarkan secara khusus di paragraf kedua.

11.Where in the passage does the author mentions the variety of found at Holzmaden?
    a.Line 1
    b.Line 3-5
    c.Line 12-13
    d.Line 19-21
Jawab:(C)Lines 12-13
Key word:thousands of specimens
Pembahasan:Selama bertahun-tahun,ribuan spesimen reptil laut,ikan,dan invertebrata telah didapat di Holzmaden.


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