TRIK JITU MENGRJAKAN SOAL TOEFL (READING 9)

   Sertifikasi

       Seventeenth-century houses in colonial North America 
            were simple structures that were primarily functional 
            carrying over traditional designs that went back to the 
            Middle Ages.During the first half of the eighteenth century,
line      however,house began to show a new elegance.As wealth 
 (5)      increased,more and more colonists built fine houses.
                Since architecture was not yet a specialized profession in 
            the colonies,the design of buildings was left either to 
            amateur designers or to carpenters who undertook to 
            interpret architectural manuals imported from England.
            Inventories of colonial libraries show an astonishing 
            number of these handbooks for builders,and the houses 
(10)     erected during the eighteenth century show their influence.
            Nevertheless,most domestic architecture of the first three-
            quarters of the eighteenth century displays a wide 
            divergence of taste and freedom of application of the rules 
            laid down in these books.
                  Increasing wealth ad growing sophistication throughout
            the colonies resulted in houses of improved design,whether
            the material was wood,stone,or brick.New Englad still 
(15)     favored wood,though brick houses became common in 
            Boston and other towns,where the danger of fire gave an 
            impetus to the use of more durable material.A few houses in
            New England were build of stone,but only in pennsylvania 
            and adjacent areas was stone widely used in dwellings.An 
            increased use of brick in houses and outbuildings is 
            noticeable in Virginia and Maryland,but wood remained that
(20)     most popular material even in houses built by wealthy 
            landowners.In the Carolinas,even in closely packed 
            Charleston,wooden houses were much more common than
            brick houses.
                   Eighteenth-century houses showed great interior 
            improvements over their predecessors.Windows were made
            larger and shutters removed large,clear panes replace the
(25)     small leaded glass of the seventeenth century.Doorways 
            were larger and more decorative.Fireplaces became 
            decorative features of rooms.Walls were made of plaster or
            wood,sometimes elaborately paneled.White paint began to 
            take the place of blues,yellows,greens,and lead colors,which
            had been popular for walls in the earlier  years.After about
            1730,advertisements for wallpaper styles in scenic patterns
             began to appear in colonial newspapers.

1.What does the passage mainly discuss?
     a.The improved design of eighteenth century colonial houses
     b.A comparison of eighteenth-century houses and modern  
         houses
     c.The decorations used in eighteenth-century houses
     d.The role of carpenters in building eighteenth-century houses
Jawab:(A)The improved design of eighteenth-century colonial houses
Key word:During the eighteenth century houses began to show a new elegance
Pembahasan:di awal bacaan disebutkan pada awal abad kedelapan belas,terjadi perubahan desain rumah

2.What was one of the main reasons for the change in architectural styte in eighteenth-century North America?
     a.More architects arrived in the colonies
     b.The colonists developed an interest in classical architecture
     c.Bricks were more readily available
     d.The colonists had more money to spend on housing
Jawab
:(D) the colonists had more money to spend on housing

Key word:Increasing wealth and growing sophistication
Pembahasan:pada paragraf ketiga disebutkan bahwa peningkatan kekayaan dan teknik yang didapat koloni menghasilkan berkembang pula desai-desain rumah 

3.According to the passage,who was responsible for designing 
   houses in eighteenth-century North America?
     a.Professional architects
     b.Customers
     c.Interior decorators
     d.Carpenters
Jawab:(D)Carpenters
Key word:the design of buildings was left either to amateur designers or to carpenters
Pembahasan:pada paragraf kedua disebutkan bahwa desain bangunan diserahkan kepada desainer amatir atau tukang kayu

4.The passage implies that the rules outlined in architectural manuals were
    a.generally ignored
    b.legally binding
    c.not strictly adhered to
    d.only followed by older builders
Jawab:(C)not strictly adhered to
Key word:displays a wide divergence of taste and freedom of application
Pembahasan:aturan yang digariskan dalam arsitektur manual tidak benar-benar dipatuhi dengan adanya penerapan yang bebas 

5.The word”divergence”in line 12 is closest in meaning to
    a.description
    b.development
    c.difference
    d.disply
Jawab:(C)difference
Key word:perbedaan
Pembahasan:divergence=perbedaan=difference,Description=deskripsi
Development=perkembangan,Display=pameran

6.The word”durable”in line 16 is closest in meaning to
    a.attractive
    b.expensive
    c.refined
    d.long-lasting
Jawab:(D)log-lasting
Key word:tahan lama
Pembahasan:durable=tahan lama,awet=long-lasting,Attractive=menarik;Expensive=mahal,Refined=halus

7.Where was stone commonly used to build houses?
    a.Virginia
    b.Pennsylvania
    c.Boston
    d.Charleston
Jawab:(B)pennsylvania
Key word:only in pennsylvania was stone widely used Pembahasan:Pennsylvania adalah tempat dimana batu biasa digunakan untuk bahan bangunan rumah

8.The word”dwellings”in line 18 is closest in meaning to
    a.houses
    b.towns
    c.outbuildings
    d.rural areas
Jawab:(A)houses
Key word:tempat tinggal
Pembahasan:dwellings=tempat tinggal,rumah=houses,Towns=kota-kota outbuidings=bangunan lain,rural areas=area pedesaan

9.The word”predecessors”in line 24 refers to
    a.colonist who arrived in North America in the seventeenth 
       century
    b.houses constructed before the eighteenth century
    c.interior improvements
    d.wooden houses in charleston
Jawab:(B)houses constructed before the eighteenth century
Key word:Eighteenth-century houses
Pembahasan:pada awal kalimat disebutkan rumah-rumah sebagai subjek,sehingga”pendahulu”di sini dimaksudkan rumah-rumah yang dibangun sebelum abad kedelapan belas.

10.The author mentions elaborately paneled walls in line 26 as an example of
    a.how the interior design of colonial houses was improved
    b.Why walls were made of wood or plaster
    c.How walls were made stronger in the eighteenth century
    d.What kind of wood was used for walls after 1730
Jawab:(A)how the interior design of colonial houses was improved
Key word:Eighteenth-century houses showed great interior improvements over their predecessors
Pebahasan:kalimat pertama pada paragraf terakhir menyebutkan bagaimana rumah di abad kedelapan belas berkembang daripada para pendahulunya
11.The word”elaborately”in line 27 is closest in meaning to
     a.done in great detail
     b.put together carefully
     c.using many colors
     d.reinforced structurally
Jawab:(A)done in great detail< br />Key word:rumit
Pembahasan:elaborately=rumit=done in great detail;
put together carefully=disatukan dengan hati-hati
using many colors=menggunakan banyak warna
reinforced structurally=diperkuat secara struktural
12.What does the author imply about the use of wallpaper before 1730?
     a.Wallpaper samples appeared in the architectural manuals.
     b.Walpaper was the some color as the wall paints used
     c.patterned wallpaper was not widely used
     d.Wallpaper was not used in stone house.
Jawab:(C)patterned wallpaper was not widely used
Key word:After 1730 advertisements for wallpaper styles i scenic patterns began to appear in newspapers
Pembahasan:setelah tahun 1730 mulai banyak iklan kertas dinding berpola di koran,yang menunjukkan bahwa tahun-tahun sebelumnya mungkin masih jarang digunakan
13.Where in the passage does the author give a reason why brick was the preferred material for houses in some urban areas?
     a.Lines 9-11
     b.Lines 15-16
     c.Lines 18-20
     d.Lines 21-23
Jawab:(B)Lines 15-16
Key word:where the danger of fire
Pembahasan:penggunaan batu bata sebagai bahan dasar bangunan rumah lebih disukai terutama untuk pewaspadaan terhadap bahaya kebakaran
    

Reference
Tim Master Eduka-Bank soal dan trategi toefl 

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