Mass transportation revised the social and economic 
           fabric of the American city in three fundamental ways.It 
           catalyzed physical expansion,it sorted out people and land
           uses,and it accelerated the inherent instability ofurban life.
           By opening vast areas of unoccupied land for residential
line     expansion,the omnibuses,horse railways,commuter trains
(5)      and electric trolleys pulled settled regions outward two to 
           four times more distant from city centers than they were in 
           the pre-modern era.In 1850,for example,the borders of 
           Boston lay scarcely two miles from the old business district 
           by the turn of the century the radius extended ten miles.Now
           those who could afford it could live far removed from the 
           old city center and still commute there for work,shopping,
 (10)   and entertainment.The new accessibility of land around the
          periphery of almost every major city sparked an explosion of
          real estate development and fueled what we now know as 
          urban sprawl.Between 1890 and 1920,for example,some
          250,000 new residential lots were recorded within the 
          borders of Chicago,most of them located in outlying areas.
          Over the same period,another 550,000 were plotted outsite
(15)   the city limits but within the metropolitan area.Anxious to
          take advantage of the possibilities of commuting,real estate
          developers added 800,000 potential building sites to the 
          Chicago region in just thirty years-lost that could have 
          housed five to six million people.
               Of couse,many were never occupied;there was always a 
(20)   huge surplus of subdivided,but vacant,land around Chicago 
          and other cities.These excesses underscore a feature of 
          residential expansion related to the growth of mass 
          transportation:urban sprawl was essentially unplanned.It was 
          carried out by thousands of small investors who paid little 
          heed to coordinated land use or to future land users.Those 
          who purchased and prepared land for residential purposes,
(25)   particularly land near or outside city borders where transit 
          lines and middle-class inhabitants were anticipated,did so to
          create demand as much as to respond to it Chicago is a prime
          example of this process.Real estate subdivision there 
          proceeded much faster than population growth.

1.With which of the following subjects is the passage mainly concorned?
   a.Types of mass transportation
   b. Instability of urban life
   c.How supply and demand determine land use
   d.The effects of mass transportation on urban expansion
Jawab:(D)The effects of mass transportation on urban expansion
Key word:Mass transportation revised the social and economic fabric of the American city
Pembahasan:Transportasi massal merevisi structur sosial dan ekonomi kota Amerika dalam tiga hal mendasar yaitu mempercepat ekspansi fisik,menyeleksi orang dan penggunaan lahan,dan mempercepat instabilitas kehidupan perkotaan

2.The author mentions all of the following as effects of mass transportation on cities EXCEPT
   a.growth in city area
   b.separation of commercial and residential districts
   c.Changes in life in the inner city
   d.Increasing standards of living
Jawab:(D)Increasing standards of living
Key word:effects of mass transportation
Pembahasan:akibat transportasi massa di kota yaitupertumbuhan di daerah kota,pemisahan daerah komersial dan residensial dan perubahan kehidupan di kota.

3.The word”vast”in line 3 is closest in meaning to
Key word:luas
nbsp;                  *basic=dasar


4.The word”sparked”in line 11 is closest in meaning to
   a.brought about
   c.sent out
Jawab:(A)brought about
Key word:memicu
                     *brought out=menyebabkan
                     *sent out=dikirim
5.Why does the author mention both Boston and Chicago?
   a.To demonstrate positive and negative effects of growth
   b.To show that mass transit changed many cities
   c.To exemplify cities with and without mass transportation
   d.heed to coordinated land use or to future land users
Jawab:(B)To show that mass transit changed many cities
Key word:Mass transportation revised the social and economic fabric of the American city
Pembahasan:Boston dan Chicago adalah kota-kota di America yang terpengaruh adanya transportasi massa.

6.The word”potential”in line 16 is closest in meaning to
Key word:potensi
Pembahasan:*potensial=kemungkinan ,kesangupan
7.The word”many”in line 19 refers to
Key word:800,000 potential building sites
Pembahasan:banyak bangunan yang tidak pernah ditempati,seperti tanah di sekitar Chicago dan kota-kota lain

8.According to the passage,what was one disadvantage of residential expansion?
   a.It was expensive
   b.It happened too slowly
   c.It was unplanned
   d.It created a demand for public transportation
Jawab:(C)It was unplanned
Key word:urban sprawl was essentially unplanned
Pembahasan:fitur ekspansi perumahan terkait dengan pertumbuhan transportasi massal pada dasarnya tidak direncanakan

9.The author mentions Chicago in the second paragraph as an example of a city
   a.That is large
   b.That is used as a model for land development
   c.where land development exceeded population growth
   d.With an excellent mass transportation system.
Jawab:(C)where land development exceeded population growth
Key word:Real estate subdivision proceeded much faster than population growth.
Pembahasan:subdivisi real estate berjalan jauh lebih cepat daripada pertumbuhan penduduk.



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