The ancient Egyptians firmly believed in the afterlife and spent their time on earth preparing for it.Elaborate burial rituals included preparing the burial site,providing for all of the deceased’s material needs(food,clothing,jewels,and tools of their trade),and preserving the corpse so that it would not decay.This preservation was accomplished through a process of mummification.The ancients left no written accounts as to the execution of this process,so scientists have had to exammine mummies and establish their own theories.The embalming process might have taken up to seventy days for the pharaohs and nobility and only a few dayss for the poor.
The embalmers spread a variety of compounds of salt,spices,and resins in and over the corpse to preserve it.They followed this with a prescribrd wrapping,a procedure in which they would strips of fine linen around,over,and under the body while placing various amulets within the wrappings to protect the deceased from harm on the long journey to the afterlife.They also painted resins over the wrapped linen.Finally,a pharaoh or noble would have been encased in a wooden box before being placed in a sarcophagus.
1.How have we been able to learn about the mummification process?
a.Accurate records have been handed down to us.
b.Interviews with embalmers who still use the process have revealed the secret.
c.After studying mummies,scientists have developed their own theories.
d.Chemical analysis of the compouns has led us to an explanation of the method used.
pembahasan:Choice(A)is not correct because the passage states that the Egyptians left”no written accounts.”Modern embalmers still using these methods(B)are not mentioned at all,nor is chemical analysis(D).sentence 4 does state specifically that”scientists have had to examine mummies and establish their own theories,”choice(C).
2.The word”they”in line 19 refers to
pembahasan:The subject of this paragraph is the”embalmers.”
3.The embalming process can best be described as
a.lengthy and complicated
b.short and simple
c.strict and unfaltering
d.wild and terrifying
pembahasan:This is an inference question.Te reading does not specifically describe the embalming process in any of these ways.However,you can assume that the process was not”short and simple”(B)because in some cases it took seventy days.A process would not be “strict and unfaltering”(C);those would be qualities more likely ascribed to a person.There is nothing at all in the reading to suggest that the embalming would be either”wild” or”terrifying”(D).Because of the several steps involved and the time mentioned,however,it would seem logical that the process is”lengthy and complicated,”choice(A).
4.The word”decay”in line 6 is closest in meaning to
pembahasan:Choice(A)is incorrect because the passage is discussing the treatment of bodies that are already dead.To embalm(C)is to preserve against decay.To rejuvenate(D)means to restore youth.”Decay”is nearest in meaning to “deteriorate.”
5.All of the following statements are true except
a.bodies were preserved as a matter of religious belief
b.all mummification took seventy days to complete
c.special compounds were used to embalm the bodies
d.it has been difficult to determine the process used
pembahasan:You are asked for the one choice that is not true.Choice(A)is true because the Egyptians”firmly believed in the afterlife.”Choice(C)is true.The compounds are listed as being made up of salt,spices, and resins.Choice(D)is not specifically mentioned,but you should assume that it has been difficult to determine the process since there are no written accounts available.Choice(B),hoever,is false,sentence 5 says,”up to seventy days for the pharaohs and nobility and only a few days for the poor,”so embalming did not always take seventy days to complete.
6.Why did the ancient Egyptians mummify the deceased?
a.To preserve the body from destruction
b.To scare tomb robbers
c.To encase the body in a sarcophagus
d.To protect the body from harm on the journey to the afterlife
pembahasan:It was important to the Egyptians that corpses did not decay(sentence 2),so choice(A) is correct.Scaring robbers away(B) is not mentioned in the passage.Encasing a body in a sarcophagus(C)was part of the entire burial ritual for a pharaoh or noble,but it followed mummification and was not the reason for it.Amulets are described as protecting the body from harm on its journey(D),not the mummification process.
7.It can be inferred that the Egyptians buried food,clothing,jewels,and tools with the deceased because
a.the family did not want anyone else to share them
b.That was the wish of the deceased
c.they were afraid
d.the deceased would-need them while enroute to afterlife
pembahasan:In the first paragraph,it’s stated that food,clothing,jewels, and tools provide for the deceased’s material needs.In the second paragraph,the need for protection on the long journey to the afterlife is mentioned.It can be inferred from these two statements that the Egyptians believed material items were still needed by the deceased because they were on a long journey to the afterlife.
8.The word”amulets”in line 17 is closest in meaning to
pembahasan:”Amulets”are charms that protect against injury or evil.”Curses,”choice(D),can be eliminated because the entire pa
ssage relates the respect the Egyptians had for the deceased.Curses are also not tangible.There are no clues to eliminate choices(A)and(B)if you do not know the meaning of”amulets.”
9.In line 6,”accomplished”is closest in meaning to
pembahasan:Substitute the answer choices for”accomplished”in the sentence.”performed”is the only verb that makes sense.
10.The distinction between mummification of bodies from different classes is explained in lines
pembahasan:The passage states that”the embalming process might have taken up to seventy days for the pharaohs and only a few days for the poor.”
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