The history of clinical nutrition,or the study of the 
             relationship between health and how the body takes in and
             utilizes food substances,can be divided into four distinct 
line       eras:the first began in the nineteenth century and extended
(5)        into the early twentieth century when it was recognized
             for the first time that food contained constituents that were
             essential for human function and that different foods 
             provided different amounts of these essential agents.Near 
             the end of this era,research studies demonstrated that rapid
(10)      weight loss was associated with nitrogen imbalance and 
             could only be rectified by providing adequate dietary 
             protein associated with certain foods.
                     The second era was initiated in the early decades of 
             the twentieth century and might be called “the vitamin 
             period.”Vitamins came to be recognized in foods,and 
             deficiency syndromes were described.As vitamins became 
             recognized as essential food constituents necessary for 
             health,it become tempting to suggest that every disease and
             condition for which there had been no previous effective 
(20)       treatment might be responsive to vitamin therapy.At that 
              point in time,medical schools started to become more 
              interested in having their curricula intregrate nutritional 
              concepts into the basic sciences.Much of the focus of this 
              education was on the recognition of vitamin deficiency
(25)        symptoms.Herein lay the beginning of what ultimately 
               turned from ignorance to denial of the value of nutritional
               therapies in medicine.Reckless claims were made for 
               effects of vitamins that went far beyond what could 
               actually be achieved from the use of them.
(30)                 In the third era of nutritional history i the early 
               1950’s to mid-1960’s,vitamin therapy began to fall into
               disrepute.Concomitant with this,nutrition education in 
               medical schools also become less popular.It was just a 
               decade before this that many drug companies had found
(35)         their vitamin sales skyrocketing and were quick to supply
                practicing physicians with generous samples of vitamins
                and literature extolling the virtue of suplementation for a
                variety of health-related conditions.Expectations as to the
                success of vitamins in disease control were exaggerated.
(40)         As is known in retrospect,vitamin and mineral therapies
                are much less effective when applied to health-crisis 
                conditions than when applied to long-term problems of 
                under nutrition that lead to chronic health problems.

 1.What does the passage mainly discuss?
    a.The effects of vitamins on the human body
    b.The history of food preferences from the nineteenth century
       to the present
    c.The stages of development of clinical nutrition as a field of 
    d.Nutritional practices of the nineteenth century
Jawab:(C)The stages of development of clinical nutrition as a field
of study.
Key word:The history of clinical nutrition
Pembahasan:di awal paragraf pertama disebutkan tentang tahap perkem
bangan dari nutrisi klinik sebagai bidang pembelajaran yang dibagi dalam empat era.

2.It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following discoveries was made during the first era in the history of nutrition?
     a.Protein was recognized as an essential component of diet.
     b.Vitamins were synthesized from foods
     c.Effective techniques of weight loss were determined
     d.Certain foods were found to be harmful to good health.
Jawab:(A)protein was recognized as an essential component of diet
Key word:rectified by providing adequate dietary protein
Pembahasan:sebagai inti penjelasan era pertama,disebutkan bahwa penambahan protein dalam makanan merupakan salah satu komponen penting bagi tubuh
3.The word”tempting”in line 18 is closest in meaning to 
Key word:menggiurkan
4.It can be inferred from the passage that medical schools began to
teach concepts of nutrition in order to
     a.convince medical doctors to participate in research studies on 
     b.encourage medical doctors to apply concepts of nutrition in 
        the treatment of disease
     c.convince doctors to conduct experimental vitamin therapies on
        their patients the creation of artificial vitamins
Jawab:(B)encourage medical doctors to apply concepts of nutrition
in the treatment of disease
Key word:on the recognition of vitamin deficiency symptoms.
Pembahasan:para docter mulai mempelajari nutrisi untuk mengetahui gejala-gejala dari penyakit kekurangan vitamin. 
5.The word”Reckless”in line 27 is closest in meaning to 
Key word:sembrono
Pembahasan: reckless=sembrono,gegabah
6.The word”them” in line 29 refers to
Key word:for effects of vitamins
Pembahasan:kalimat tersebut menjelaskan tentang penggunaan vitamin secara lebih lanjut.
7.Why did vitamin therapy begin losing favor in the the 1950’s
    a.The public lost interest in vitamins
    b.Medical schools stopped teaching nutritional concepts.
    c.Nutritional research was of poor quality
    d.Claims for the effectiveness of vitamin therapy were seen to be
Jawab:(D)Claims for the effectiveness of vitamin therapy were seen to be exaggerated.
Key word:Expectations as to the success of vitamins in disease control were exaggerated
Pembahasan:kepopuleran vitamin jatuh karena kurang efektifnya penggunaan terapi vitamin dalam penyakit.
8.The phrase”concomitant with”in line 32 is closest in meaning to conjunction with
    b.prior to dispute with regard to
Jawab:(A)in conjunction with
Key word:bersamaan
Pembahasan:concomitant with=bersamaan dengan=in conjunction with
prior to=sebelum
In dispute with=bersengketa dengan
In egard to=mengenai
9.The word”skyrocketing” in line 35 is closest in meaning to
    a.internationally popular
    b.increasing rapidly
Jawab:(B)increasing rapidly
Key word:meroket
menanjak denga cepat=increasing rapidly
internationally popular=popular secara internasional
Acceptable=dapat diterima
10.The word”extolling”in line 37 is closest in meaning to 
Key word:memuji
Pembahasan :extolling=memuji=praising
11.The paragraph following the passage most probably discusses
    a.The fourth era of nutrition history
    b.problems associated with undernutrition drug companies became succesful
    d.why nutrition education lost its appeal
Jawab:(A)the fourth era of nutrition history
Key word:The history of clinical nutrition can be divided into four distinct eras
Pembahasan:pada awal bacaan disebutkan bahwa ada empat era nutrisi klinis,karena dalam bacaan di atas baru ada tiga era,maka kemungkinan besar paragraf selanjutnya akan membahas era keempat dari sejarah nutrisi klinis.

Tim Master Eduka-Bank soal dan strategi TOEFL
Thank for reading TRIK JITU MENGERJKAN SOAL TOEFL in my blog.