TRIK JITU MENGERJAKAN SOAL TOEFL(READING 3)

         The history of clinical nutrition ,or the study of the 
              relationship between health and how the body takes in and
              utilizes food substances,can be divided into four distinct 
line        eras:the first began in the nineteenth century and extended 
              into the early twentieth century when it was recognized for
              the first time that food contained constituents that were 
              essential for human function and that different foods 
              provided different amounts of these essential agents.Near 
              the end of this era,research studues demonstrated that rapid
(10)       weight loss was assosiated with nitrogen imbalance and 
              could only be rectified by providing adequate dietary 
              protein associated with certain foods.
                      The second era was initiated in the early decades of 
              the twentieth century and might be called”the vitamin 
 (15)      period”.Vitamin came to be recognized in foods,and
              deficiency syndromes were described.As vitamins become
              recognized as essential food constituents necessary for 
              health,it became tempting to suggest that every disease and
              condition for which there had been no previous effective
(20)       treatment might be responsive to vitamin therapy.At that 
              point in time,medical schools started to become more 
              interested in having their curricula integrate nutritional 
              concepts into the basic sciences.Much  of the focus of this
              education was on the recognition of vitamin deficiency 
(25)       symptoms.Herein lay the beginning of what ultimately 
             turned from ignorance to denial of the value of nutritional 
             therapies in medicine.Reckless claims were made for 
             effects of vitamins that went far beyond what could 
             actually be achieved from the use of them.
(30)               In the third era of nutritional history in the early 
             1950’s to mid-1960’s,vitamin therapy began to fall into
             disrepute.Concomitant with this,nutrition education in 
             medical schools also became less popular.It was just 
             decade before this that many drug companies had found
(35)      their vitamin sales skyrocketing and were quick to supply
             practicing physicians with generous samples of vitamins 
             and literature extolling the virtue of supplementation for a
             variety of health-related conditions.Expectations as to the
             success of vitamins in disease control were exaggerated.
(40)      As is known in retrospect,vitamin and mineral therapies 
             are much less effective when applied to health-crisis
             conditions than when applied to long-term problems of 
             under nutrition that lead to chronic health problems.

1.What does the passage mainly discuss?
   a.The effects of vitamins on the human body
   b.The history of food preferences from the nineteenth
      century to the present
   c.The stages of development of clinical nutrition as a field of 
       study
   d.Nutritional practices of the nineteenth century
Jawab:(C)The stages of development  of clinical nutrition as a field
           of study
Key word:The history of clinical nutrition
Pembahasan:di awal paragraf
pertama disebutkan tentang tahap perkembangan dari nutrisi klinik sebagai bidang pembelajaran yang dibagi dalam empat era. 

2.It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following discoveries was made during the first era in the history of nutrition.
   a.Protein was recognized as an essential component of diet
   b.Vitamins were synthesized rom foods.
   c.Effective techniques of weight loss were determined.
   d.Certain foods were found to be harmful to good health.
Jawab:(A)protein was recognized as an essential component of diet
Key word:rectified by providing adequate dietary protein
Pembahasan:sebagai inti penjelasan era pertama,disebutkan bahwa penambahan protein dalam makanan merupakan salah satu komponen penting bagi tubuh.
3.The word “tempting”in line 18 is closest in meaning to 
   a.necessary
   b.attractive
   c.realistic
   d.correct
Jawab:(B)attractive
Key word:menggiurkan
Pembahasan:tempting=menggiurkan,menarik=attractive;Necessary=perlu
Realistic=realistis
Correct=benar
4.It can be inffered from the passage that medical schools began to teach concepts of nutrition in order to
   a.convince medical doctors to participate in research stidies on 
      nutrition
   b.encourage medical doctors to apply concepts of nitrition in the 
      treatment of disease
   c.convince doctors to conduct experimental vitamin therapies on 
      their patients.
   d.support the creation of artificial vitamins
Jawab:(B)encourage medical doctors to apply concepts of nutrition in the treatment of disease.
Key word:on the recognition of vitamin deficiency symptoms.
Pembahasan:para docter mulai mempelajari nutrisi untuk mengetahui gejala-gejala dari penyakit kekurangan vitamin.
5.The word”Reckless”in line 27 is closest in meaning to 
   a.recorded
   b.irresponsible
   c.informative
   d.urgent
Jawab:(B)irresponsible
Key word:sembrono
Pembahasan:reckless=sembrono,gegabah,
mengbaikan=irresponsible;
Recorded=terekam
Informative=informatif
Urgent=mendesak
6.The word”them”in line 29 refers to
   a.therapies
   b.claims
   c.effects
   d.vitamins
Jawab:(D)vitamins
Key word:for effects of vitamins
Pembahasan:kalimat tersebut menjelaskan tentang penggunaan vitamin secara lebih jauh.
7.Why did vitamin therapy begin losing favor in the 1950’s 
   a.The public lost interest in vitamins.
   b.Medical schools stopped teaching nutritional concepts.
   c.Nutritional research was of poor quality
   d.Claims for effectiveness of vitamin therapy were seen to be 
       exaggerated.
Jawab:(D)Claims for the effectiveness of vitamin therapy were seen
to be exaggerated.
Key word:Expectations as to the success of vitamins in disease control were exaggerated.
Pembahasan:kepopuleran vitamin jatuh karena kurang efektifnya penggunaan terapi vitamin dalam penyakit. 
8.The phrase”concomitant with”in line 32 is closest in meaning to
   a.in conjunction with
   b.prior to
   c.in dispute with
   d.in regard to
Jawab:(A)in  conjunction with
Key word:bersamaan
Pembahasan:concomitant with=bersamaan dengan=in conjunction with;
prior to=sebelum
in dispute with=bersengketa dengan
in regard to=mengenai
9.The word”skyrocketing”in line 35 is closest in meaning to 
   a.internationally popular
   b.increasing rapidly
   c.acceptable
   d.surprising
Jawab:(B)increasing rapidly
Key word:meroket
Pembahasan:skyrocketing =meroket,menanjak dengan cepat=incresing rapidly
Internationally popular:populer secara international
Acceptable=dapat diterima
Surprising=mengejutkan
10.The word”extolling”in line 37 is closest in meani
ng to 

   a.analizing
   b.questioning
   c.praising
   d.promising
Jawab:(C)praising
Key word:memuji
Pembahasan:extolling=memuji=praising
Analizing=menganalisa 

promosing=berjanji
11.The paragraph following the passage most probably discusses
   a.the fourth era of nutrition history
   b.problems associated with undernutrition
   c.how drug companies became successful
   d.why nutrition education lost its appeal
Jawab:(A)the fourth era of nutrition history
Key word:The history clinical nitrition can be divided into four distinct eras
pembahasan:pada awal bacaan disebutkan bahwa ada empat era nutrisi klinis, karena dalam bacaan di atas baru ada tiga era,maka kemungkinan besar paragraf selanjutnya akanmembahas era keempat dari sejarah nutrisi klinis.

 

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