Fungsi,of which there are over 100,000 species,
             including yeasts and other single-celled organisms as well 
             as the common molds and mushrooms,were formerly
line       classified as members of the plat kingdom.However,in 
 (5)        reality they are very different from plants and today they 
              are placed in a separate group altogether.The principal 
              reason for this is that none of them possesses chlorophyll,
              and sice they cannot synthesize their own carbohydrates,
              they obtain their supplies either from the breakdown of 
(10)       dead organic matter or from other living organisms.
              Furthermore the walls of fungal cells are not made of 
              cellulose,as those of plants are,but of another complex
              sugarlike polymer called chitin,the material from which 
              the hard outer skeletons of shrimps,spiders,and insects are 
              made.The difference between the chemical composition
(15)       of the cell walls of fungi and those of plats is of enormous
              importance because it enables the tips of the growing 
              hyphae,the threadlike cells of the fungus,to secrete 
              enzymes that break down the walls of plant cells without 
              having any effect on those of the fungus itself.It is these
(20)       cellulose-destroying enzymes that enable fungi to attack 
              anything made from wood,wood pulp,cotton,flax,or other
              plant material.
                        The destructive power of fungi is impressive.They
              are a major cause of structural damage to building timbers,
(25)       a cause of disease in animals and humans,and one of the 
              greatest causes of agricultural losses.Entire crops can be 
              wiped out by fungal attacks both before and after 
              harvesting.Some fungi can grow at + 500c,while others 
              can grow at -5c,so even food in cold storage may not be
(30)       completely safe from them.On the other hand,fungi bring 
              about the decomposition of dead organic matter,thus 
               enriching the soil and returning carbon dioxide to atmos
               phere.They also enter into a number of mutually 
               beneficial relationships with plants and other organisms.
(35)        In addition,fungi are te source of many of the most potent
               antibiotics used in clinical medicine,including penicillin.
1.What does paragraph 1 mainly discuss?
    a.Differences between simply and  
       complex fungi
    b.Functions of chlorophyll in plants
    c.Functions of sugar in the walls of fungal
    d.Differences between fungi and plants
Jawab:(D)Diferences between fungi and plants
Key word:they are very different from plants
Pembahasan:pada awal paragraf disebutkan bahwa jamur berbeda dengan tumbuhan,lalu kalimat-kalimat berikutnya menjelaskan perbedaan-perbedaan tersebut.
2.Which of the following is mentioned as a major change in how scientists approach the study of fungi?
   a.Fungi are no longer classsified as plants
   b.Some single-cell organisms are no longer classified as fungi.
   c.New methods of species identificationn have been introduced
   d.Theories about the chemical composition of fungi have been 
Jawab:(A)Fungi are no longer classified as plants
Key word:to
day they are placed in a separate group altogether

Pembahasan:setelah ditliti lebih mendalam,diketahui bahwa jamur amat berbeda dengan tumbuhan,oleh karena itu ia dikelompokkan berbeda dari tumbuhan.
3.The word”principal”in line 7 is closest in meaning to 
Key word:utama
logical=dengan logis
4.According to the passage,how do fungi obtain carbohydrates?
   a.They absorb carbohydrates from their own cell walls.
   b.They synthesize chlorophyll to produce carbohydrates
   c.They poduce carbohydrates by breaking down chitin.
   d.They acquire carbohidrates from other organic matter,both 
       living and dead.
Jawab:(D)They acquire carbohydrates from other organic matter,both living and dead.
Key word:baris kedelapan dan kesembilan
Pembahasan:pada baris kedelapan dan kesembilan disebutkan bahwa jamur mendapatkan asupan karbohidrat dari jasad organik yang sudah mati ataupun yang masih hidup.
5.The passage mentions shrimps,spiders,and insects in line 14 because their skeletons
   a.can be destroyed by fungi
   b.have unusual chemical compositions
   c.contain a material found in the walls of fungal cells
   d.secrete the same enzymes as the walls of fungal cells do
Jawab:(C)contain a material fund in the walls of fungal cells
Key word:another complex called chitin
Pembahasan:pada baris ketujuh disebutkan bahwa dinding dari sel jamur mengandung kitin seperti pada kulit luar udang ,laba-laba dan seranngga. 
6.Which of the following terms is defined in the passage?
Key word:the treadlike cells of the fungus
Pembahasan:dari keempat kata tersebut,hanya hyphae yang didefinisikan yaitu sel-sel seperti benang dari jamur.
7.The word”those”in line 15 refers to
Key word:brak down the walls of plant cells
Pembahasan:pada kalimat sebelumnya dijelaskan bahwa enzim yang dikeluarkan hyphae dapat menghancurkan dinding sel tumbuhan tetapi tidak memiliki efek pada dinding jamur itu sendiri.
8. Fungi have all of the following characteristics EXCEPT
   a.They grow hyphae
   b.They secrete enzimes
   c.They synthesize cellulose
   d.They destroy crops
Jawab:(C)They synthesize cellulose
Key word:baris keduabelas
Pembahasan:disebutkan bahwa dinding sel jamur tidak terbuat dari selulosa tetapi dari kitin.
9.The word”Entire”in line 21 is closest in meaning to 
Key word:seluruh
10.The passage describes the negative effects of fungi  on all the following EXCEPT
Key word:kalimat pertama paragraf kedua
Pembahasan:disebutkan bahwa jamur dapat merusak bangunan,hewan dan manusia,juga pada hasil panen.Jamur menyebabkan dampak positif,bukan negarif pada tanah.

Tim Master Eduka-Bank soal dan strategi TOEFL

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