Indirect Speech

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Kalimat Tidak Langsung

Pada post sebelumnya kita telah mempelajari kalimat langsung atau direct speech. Pada post kali ini kita akan membahas tentang Indirect Speech pula. Indirect speech atau kalimat tak langsung adalah direct speech yang disampaikan oleh pihak kedua kepada pihak ketiga. Dengan kata lain, indirect speech adalah menirukan ucapan orang lain tanpa mengutip langsung ucapan si pembicara namun dengan makna dan tujuan yang sama. Reported words dan reporting verbs selalu dihubungkan dengan conjuction / kata penghubung.
Contoh:
          “Do you like fishing?” Dono asked me. (direct speech)
Kamu suka memancing? Dono bertanya padaku.
Dono asked me if I liked fishing. (indirect speech)
Done tanya padaku apakah aku suka memancing.
          The boy said, “I am sick.” (direct speech)
Anak laki-laki itu berkata,Saya sakit.
The boy said that he was sick. (indirect speech)
Anak laki-laki itu berkata bahwa dia sakit.
Indirect speech dapat dibentuk dari kalimat perintah, statement, maupun kalimat tanya. Berikut penjelasan masing-masing kalimat:
a.       Imperative sentence / kalimat perintah
Pada kalimat perintah, kita menambahkan kata ‘to’ atau ‘not to’ diantara reporting verb dan reported word. ‘to’ digunakan jika kalimat perintahnya adalah positif dan ‘not to’ digunakan jika kalimat perintahnya adalah negative.
          “Listen to me carefully!” told the policeman.
Dengarkan saya baik-baik! kata polisi.
The policeman told us to listen to him carefully.
Polisi itu mengatakan untuk mendengarkannya dia baik-baik.
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“Don’t smoke here!” the guard told the man.
Jangan merokok disini! penjaga itu memberitahu pria itu.
The guard told the man not to smoke there.
Penjaga memberitahu pemuda itu untuk tidak merokok di sana.
          “Open your book on page number 123!” she said.
Buka bukumu halaman 123! katanya.
She said to open our book page number 123.
Dia mengatakan untuk membuka buku halaman 123.
          The manager said, “Meet me at the meeting room at 2!”
Manajer berkata,”Temui saya di ruang rapat jam 2!”
The manager said to meet her at the meeting room at 2.
Manajer mengatakan untuk menemuinya di ruang rapat jam 2.
b.      Statement
Ada beberapa hal yang harus diperhatikan dalam membuat direct speech menjadi indirect speech, yaitu:

Ø  Perubahan tenses

Direct speech
Indirect speech
Simple present
Simple past
Present continous
Past continous
Present perfect
Past perfect
Present perfect continous
Past perfect continous
Simple past
Tetap atau past perfect
Past continous
Past perfect continous
Past perfect
Tetap
Past perfect continous
Tetap
Simple future
Past future
Future continous
Past future continous
Future perfect
Past future perfect
Future perfect continous
Past future perfect continous
Perhatikan contoh kalimat dibawah ini!
          She said, “You have to study hard.”
Dia berkata,”Kamu harus belajar giat”.
She said that I had to study hard.
Dia mengatakan bahwa aku harus belajar giat.
          Amir said, “I am very happy.”
Amir berkata, “Saya sangat bahagia”.
Amir said that he was very happy.
Amir mengatakan bahwa dia sangat bahagia.
          “Your grandfather passed away last night,” my father said.
“Kakek mu meninggal semalam,” Ayahku berkata.
My father said that my grandfather had passed away last night.
Ayahku mengatakan bahwa kakekku telah meninggal semalam.
My father said that my grandfather passed away the previous night.
Ayahku mengatakan bahwa kakekku telah meninggal malam sebelumnya.
          “I will go to Surabaya next week,” my friend told me.
Saya akan ke Surabaya minggu depan,” temanku berkata padaku.
My friend told me that she would go to Surabaya the following week.
Temanku mengatakan padaku bahwa dia akan ke surabaya minggu yang akan datang.
Jika reported wordsnya merupakan kebenaran umum, maka tensesnya tidak mengalami perubahan.
          Mr Alim said, “The sun rises in the east.”
Pak Alim berkata. “Matahari terbit di Timur”.
Mr Alim said that the sun rises in the east.
Pak Alim mengatakan bahwa matahari terbit di Timur.
          My teacher told us, “One and one equals two.”
Guruku memberi tau kami, “Satu tambah satu sama dengan dua”.
My teacher told us that one and one equals two.
Guruku memberi tau kami bahwa satu tambah satu sama dengan dua”.
          The scientist said, “Water boils at 1000C.”
Ilmuwan berkata, “Air mendidih pada suhu 1000C.”
The scientist said that water boils at 1000C.
Ilmuwan mengatakan bahwa air mendidih pada suhu1000C.”

Jika reporting verbnya simple present tense, maka tenses pada indirect speechnya tidak mengalami perubahan.
          She says, “I am hungry.”
Dia berkata, “Saya lapar”.
She says that she is hungry.
Dia mengatakan bahwa dia lapar.
          They shout, “We are one.”
Mereka teriak, “Kami adalah satu”.
They shout that they are one.
Mereka berteriak bahwa mereka adalah satu.
Ø  Perubahan waktu
Direct speech
Indirect speech
Now
Then
at the time
at the moment

Today
That day
Tonight
That night
Yesterday
The day before
the previous day
the preceeding day
Last week
The previous week
Two months ago
The previous two months
Tomorrow
The day after
the following day
the next day
Next month
The following month
The day before yesterday
Two days before
Last…..
The …..before
The previous…..
The preceeding….
…….ago
…..before
…..earlier
Next……..
The……after
The following……..

Contoh:
          Qila said, “My mother went to Jakarta yesterday.”
Qila berkata, “Ibuku ke Jakarta kemarin”.
Qila said that her mother had gone to Jakarta the previous day.
Qila mengatakan bahwa Ibunya telah ke Jakarta di hari sebelumnya.
          Alem said to me, “I was sick last week.”
Alem berkata padaku, “Dia sakit minggu lalu”.
Alem said to me that he was sick the week before.
Alem mengatakan bahwa dia sakit pada minggu sebelumnya.
          “I will attend a meeting in Bandung tomorrow,” the manager said.
“Saya akan hadir pada sebuah pertemuan di Bandung besok,” kata manager itu.
The manager said that she would attend a meeting in Bandung the day after.
Manajer mengatakan bahwa dia akan hadir pada sebuah pertemuan di Bandung keesokan harinya.
Ø  Perubahan pronoun

Direct speech
Indirect speech

I
He
She
You
Me
He
She
Him
Her
I
They
Them
My…
His
Her
Our…
Their…
Our…
Your….
My
His
Her
Contoh:
          She told us, “I want to go to the theather.”
Dia berkata pada kami, “Aku akan pergi ke bioskop”.
She told us that she wanted to go to the theatre.
Dia mengatakan pada kami bahwa dia akan pergi ke bioskop.
          He said, “My son is 18 years old.”
Dia berkata, “Putraku berumur 18 tahun”.
He said that his son was 18 years old.
Dia mengatakan bahwa putranya berumur 18 tahun.
Ø  Perubahan demonstrative pronoun

Direct speech
Indirect speech
This
That
These
Those
That
The
Those
The
Contoh:
          My friend said, “That crocodile is very big.”
Temanku berkata, “Buaya itu sangat besar”.
My friend said that the crocodile was very big.
Temanku mengatakan bahwa buaya itu sangat besar.
          “I don’t know whose money is this,” said the staff.
Aku tidak tau uang siapa ini,” kata staff itu.
The staff said that he didn’t know whose money was that.
Staf itu mengatakan bahwa dia tidak tau uang itu milik siapa.
Ø  Perubahan modal
Direct speech
Indirect speech
Will
Would
Can
Could
Shall
Should
Must
Had to
Must have
May
Might
Should
Should have
Contoh:
          “We can pass the examination if we study hard,” my friend said.
Kita bisa lulus ujian jika kita belajar dengan giat,” Kata temanku.
My friend said that we could pass the examination if we studied hard.
Temanku mengatakan bahwa kita bisa lulus ujian jika kita belajar dengan giat.
          The security guard said, “You must wait at the lobby.”
Penjaga keamanan berkata, “Kamu harus menunggu di lobi.
The security guard said that I had to wait at the lobby.
Penjaga keamanan mengatakan bahwa saya harus menunggu di lobi.
a.       Interrogative sentence / kalimat pertanyaan
Dalam menyampaikan kalimat berita berupa yes/no question, kita harus menggunakan ‘if’ atau ‘whether’ sebagai kata penghubung.
Contoh:
          She asked me, “Are you hungry?”
Dia bertanya,”Apakah kamu lapar?”
She asked me if I was hungry.
Dia bertanya padaku apakah aku lapar.
She asked me whether I was hungry.
Dia bertanya padaku apakah aku lapar.
          The man asked, “Do you know Susan?”
Pria itu bertanya, “Apakah kamu mengenal Susan?”
The man asked if I knew Susan.
Pria itu menanyakan apakah aku mengenal Susan.
The man asked whether I knew Susan.
Pria itu menanyakan apakah aku mengenal  Susan.
          My father asked me, “Will your friends come tonight?”
Ayah bertanya padaku, “Akankah teman-temanmu datang malam ini?”
My father asked me if my friends would come that night.
Ayah bertanya padaku apakah teman-temanku akan datang malam itu.
My father asked me whether my friends would come that night.
Ayah bertanya padaku apakah teman-temanku akan datang malam itu.
          The soldier asked, “Is this the way to police station?”
Tentara itu bertanya, “Apakah ini jalan ke kantor polisi?”
The soldier asked if that was the way to police station.
Tentara itu menanyakan apakah itu jalan ke kantor polisi.
The soldier asked whether that was the way to police station.
Tentara itu menanyakan apakah itu jalan ke kantor polisi.
Jika pertanyaannya adalah informative question atau pertanyaan yang menggunakan kata tanya, maka kita hanya perlu merubah kalimat tanya menjadi pernyataan.
          The guest asked me, “Where is the toilet?”
Tamu itu bertanya padaku,”Dimana toilet?”
The guest asked me where the toilet was.
Tamu bertanya padaku di mana toilet.
          The passenger asked Adi, “What is your name?”
Penumpang itu  bertanya pada Adi, “Siapa namamu?”
The passenger asked Adi what his name was.
Penumpang itu bertanya pada Adi siapakah namanya.
          The mentor asked, “Why didn’t you come last week?”
Mentor bertanya, “Kenapa kamu tidak datang minggu lalu?”
The mentor asked why I hadn’t come the week before.
Mentor bertanya kenapa kenapa saya tidak datang minggu sebelumnya.
          The security
guard asked me, “Why are you in hurry?”
Penjaga keamaan itu bertanya padaku, “Kenapa kamu terburu-buru?”
The security guard asked me why I was in hurry.
Penjaga keamaan itu bertanya padaku kenapa saya terburu-buru.
          The bus driver asked, “What time should I pick you up?”
Supir bis bertanya, “Jam berapa saya harus menjemputmu?”
The bus driver asked what time he should have picked me up.

Supir bis menanyakan jam berapa dia seharusnya menjemputku.

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