Adjective Derivation and Formation

Pembentukan Kata Sifat

Adjective merupakan kata yang menjelaskan kata benda atau noun. Jadi kata apapun yang berfungsi sebagai penjelas atau modifier noun pasti adjective. Sama halnya dengan noun, verb, dan adverb, adjective juga dapat diturunkan dan dibentuk dari kata lain seperti noun, verb, dan adjective lainnya. Berikut penjelasannya:
I. Verb+able (dapat di)
Verb  Adjective
Compare / membandingkan
Eat / makan
Understand / mengerti
See / melihat
Forget / melupakan
 Comparable / dapat dibandingkan
 Eatable / edible dapat dimakan
 Understandable / dapat dimengerti
 Visible / dapat terlihat
 Forgettable / dapat dilupakan
  • He didn’t speak clearly, but it is still understandable.
  • Wind does exist although it is not visible.
  • It looks bizzare. Is it edible?
II. Verb+ing/ed (present and past participle)
Verb Adjective
Interest / menarik minat  
Bore / membosankan  
Frighten / menakuti  
Tire / melelahkan  
Amaze / menakjubkan  
Interesting / menarik
Interested / tertarik
Boring / membosankan
Bored / merasa bosan
Frightening / menakutkan
Frightened / takut
Tiring / melelahkan
Tired / lelah
Amazing / menakjubkan
Amazed / takjub
  • The title of the book is interesting.
  • I feel bored. I think I need to grab something.
  • The circus show was just amazing.
III. Noun+y
Noun Adjective
Cloud /  awan
Grass / rumput
Health / kesehatan
Hunger / kelaparan
Greed / keserakahan
Anger / kemarahan
Wind / angin
Salt / garam
Water / air
Sweat / keringat
Sand / pasir
Sun / matahari
Snow / salju
Rain / hujan
Stink / bau
Cloudy / berawan/mendung
Grassy / berumput
Healthy / sehat
Hungry / lapar
Greedy / serakah
Angry / marah
Windy / berangin
Salty / asin
Watery / berair
Sweaty / berkeringat
Sandy / berpasir
Sunny / cerah
Snowy / bersalju
Rainy / hujan deras
Stinky / busuk
  • Don’t be so greedy, man!
  • The Biology teacher was really angry with us.
  • The soup tastes very salty.
  • She did not come to the school because it was rainy.
  • The cake looks so delicious. It makes my mouth watery.
IV. Noun+full
Noun Adjective
Beauty / kecantikan
Hope / harapan
Power / tenaga/kekuatan
Care / perawatan
Beautiful / cantik
Hopeful / penuh harapan
Powerful / bertenaga
Careful / hati-hati
  • You are so beautiful.
  • The gun is so powerful.
  • Be careful on the way.
V. Noun+ly
Noun Adjective
Mother / ibu
Father / ayah
Friend / teman
Day / hari
Week / minggu
Month / bulan
Year / tahun
Man / lelaki
Woman / wanita
Motherly / keibuan
Fatherly / kebapakan
Friendly / persahabatan
Daily / harian
Weekly / mingguan
Monthly / bulanan
Yearly / tahunan
Manly / kelaki-lakian
Womanly / kewanita-wanitaan
  • The friendly match was cancelled due to security issues.
  • I have been subscribing daily newspaper for two years.
  • She looks so manly.
VI. Noun+less
Noun Adjective
End / akhir
Speech / pidato
Use / penggunaan
Care / perawatan
Power / kekuatan
Hope / harapan
Job / pekerjaan
Home / rumah
Endless/ abadi
Speechless / terdiam
Useless / sia-sia
Careless / ceroboh
Powerless / tak berdaya
Hopeless / gak ada harapan
Jobless / pengangguran

Homeless / tunawisma
  • The homeless man sleeps under the bridge every day.
  • I don’t know what to do. I am hopeless.
  • You are so careless.
VII. Noun+ous/ious
Noun Adjective
Danger / bahaya
Envy / kecemburuan
Luxury / kemewahan
Mountain / gunung
Dangerous / berbahaya
Envious / cemburu
Luxurious / mewah
Mountainous / bergunung-gunung
  • Do not go there. It is so dangerous.
  • The businessman just bought a new luxurious house in the capital.
  • You are envious, aren’t you?
VIII. Noun+ic
Noun Adjective
Economy / ekonomi
History / sejarah
Poet / puisi
Allergy / alergi
Economic / irit
Historic / bernilai sejarah
Poetic / puitis
Allergic / alergik
  • During the global crisis, we have to be as economic as possible.
  • The man was so poetic.
  • The book is historic.
IX. Noun+ish
Noun Adjective
Black / hitam
Book / buku
Wolf / serigala
Child / anak
Blue / biru
Blackish / kehitam-hitaman
Bookish / seperti buku
Wolfish / seperti serigala
Childish / kekanak-kanakan
Bluish / kebiru-biruan
  • The metal turns to be blackish.
  • Stop playing that childish game.
  • The brochure looks bookish.
X. Noun+like
Noun    Adjective
Boy / anak lelaki
Father / ayah
Wife / isteri
   Boylike / seperti lelaki
   Fatherlike / seperti ayah
   Wifelike / seperti isteri
  • Your sister is boylike.
  • You look fatherlike.
XI. Noun+al
Noun Adjective
Nature / alam
Person / orang
Practice / praktek
Music / music
Nation / bangsa
Culture / budaya
Education / pendidikan
Natural / alami
Personal / peribadi
Practical / praktis
Musical / musical
National / nasional
Cultural / bersifat budaya
Educational/bersifat pendidikan
  • Snakes are the natural predators of mice.
  • The methodology is so practical.
  • The audience sing the national anthem emotionally.
  • It is just my personal perception.
XII. Noun+en
Noun Adjective
Gold / emas
Wood / kayu
Wool / wol
Golden / keemasan
Wooden / terbuat dari kayu
Woolen / terbuat dari wol
  • This is the golden moment for us to win this tournament.
  • My father made a wooden table yesterday.
  • His jacket is woolen.
XIII. Noun+ern
Noun Adjective
South / selatan
North / utara
West / barat
East / timur
Southern / daerah selatan
Northern / daerah utara
Western / daerah barat
Eastern / daerah timur
  • They are heading to the southern part.
  • I live in the eastern part of Borneo island.
  • I do love listening to the western songs.
XIV. Im+adjective
Adjective Adjective
Possible / memungkinkan
Mortal / abadi
Partial / memihak
Passable / dapat dilewati
Patient / sabar
Proper / layak
Impossible / mustahil
Immortal / tidak abadi
Impartial / tidak memihak
Impassable/tidak dapat dilewati
Impatient / tidak sabar
Improper / tidak layak
  • Nothing is impossible.
  • Only God is immortal.
  • We need to find the alternative way because the road is impassable.
XV. In+adjective
Adjective Adjective
Accurate / akurat
Adequate / cukup
Accessible / dapat diakses
Active / aktif
Appropriate / sesuai
Complete / lengkap
Compatible / cocok
Competent / berkompeten
Consistent / konsisten
Dependent / bergantung pd sesuatu
Different / berbeda
Inaccurate / tidak akurat
Inadequate / tidak cukup
Inaccessible / tidak dapat diakses
Inactive / tidak aktif
Inappropriate / tidak sesuai
Incomplete / tidak lengkap
Incompatible / tidak cocok
Incompetent / tidak berkompeten
Inconsisten / tidak konsisten
Independent mandiri
Indifferent / sama
  • The data you gave to me is inaccurate.
  • The website has been inactive for days.
  • We have to be independent.
XVI. Un+adjective
Adjective Adjective
Easy / mudah
Important / penting
Predictable / dapat diprediksi
Qualified / berkualitas
Doubted diragukan
Dressed / perpakaian
Educated / berpendidikan
Employed / bekerja
Equal / sejajar
Fair / adil
Uneasy / susah
Unimportant / tidak penting
Unpredictable / tidak terduga
Unqualified / tidak berkualitas
Undoubted / tidak diragukan
Undressed / telanjang
Uneducated / tidak perpendidikan
Unemployed / pengangguran
Unequal / tidak sejajar
Unfair / curang
  • It is not uneasy job.
  • The weather is unpredictable.
  • You look uneducated.
XVII. Il+adjective
Adjective Adjective
Logical / logis
Literate / pintar membaca
Legal / sah
Legible / pantas
Illogical / tidak logis
Illiterate / buta huruf
Illegal / illegal
Illegible / tidak pantas
  • What he said was just illogical.
  • Do not do that. It is illegal.
  • You may be failed, but you are not illegible.
XVIII. Ir+adjective
Adjective Adjective
Rational / masuk akal
Relevant / berhubungan
Regular / beraturan
Irrational / tidak masuk akal
Irrelevant tidak berhubungan
Irregular / tidak beraturan
  • Your reason is just irrelevant to the issues.
  • The idea is just irrational.
  • There are some irregular verbs we need to learn.
Sekian ya untuk pembahasan kali ini. Semoga bermanfaat dan tetap semangat belajarnya.

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